Spock chooses Introvert - iNtuition -Thinking -Judging and is therefore an exact reversal of McCoy, which makes for interesting conflicts in their characters. But, first, we had to define what kinds of organizational characteristics would determine how appropriate the organization was to the particular task. Criticisms and Strengths The above statements may be considered generalizations. No one doubts the importance of motivation, but the source of that motivation is the point of great contention in the business world. This study reports on the effects of management style in successful implementation of Six Sigma. Definition of Theory Y Theory Y is a modern approach on motivation, put forward by McGregor.
The answers to these questions will guide their decisions about the design of the management hierarchy, the specificity of job assignments, and the utilization of rewards and control procedures. However, commentators and practitioners have often misinterpreted his ideas to assume exactly that. There are plenty of people who possess the personality traits associated with leadership, yet many of these people never seek out positions of leadership. McGregor makes the point that a command-and-control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs for motivation, but in modern society those needs are mostly satisfied and thus are no longer motivating. This website is owned and operated by Psychometric Success Ltd.
Douglas McGregor, revisited: managing the human side of the enterprise. Such theories often focus on the characteristics of leaders, but some attempt to identify the behaviors that people can adopt to improve their own leadership abilities in different situations. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between strategic leadership and organization performance in Jordan Industrial Estates Company. A questionnaire was designed to elicit responses from randomly selected respondents. For Self Actualization the manager needs to promote the optimum workplace through morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, and acceptance of facts. According to this theory, pure work motivation consists of financial incentives. Nothing in our data indicates that either set of assumptions was valid at Akron.
The hypotheses were tested using linear regressions. Many managers tend towards Theory X, and generally get poor results - especially over the longer term. In reality, both can be right, given the circumstances, the employees in question, and the structure of the company as a whole. We sense the gap, and we know with one more step we will certainly fall into chaos. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Knowing where a person is located on the pyramid will aid you in determining effective motivators. Priorities will be given to developing positive work environments and expressing regular recognition and appreciation.
An optimal managerial style would help cultivate worker creativity, insight, meaning and moral excellence. In practice Theory X managers tend to be autocratic and controlling, and feel it is up to them to ride people and make them do their work i. Leaders following this style encourage a high degree of autonomy, with the freedom to share and act on new ideas. Competence motivation is most likely to be fulfilled when there is a fit between task and organization. Elaine Rogers Elaine Rogers is a Business Trainer, Coach and Writer. A two-page questionnaire was delivered to the owners and managers of 200 registered chandelier makers and lighting firms.
It's either something you are born with or born without. Managers can start this process by considering how certain the task is, how frequently feedback about task performance is available, and what goals are implicit in the task. Our goal as leaders therefore is to help people obtain the skills, knowledge, and benefits that will push them up the hierarchy. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Third, I will propose correlates of the basic eight types in Figure 1 with the M-B scores. This article describes the McGregor Theory X and Theory Y of.
These needs are often listed in a hierarchical order in the form of a pyramid to show that the basic needs bottom ones must be met before the higher order needs. Even with our limited knowledge, however, there are indications that people will gradually gravitate into organizations that fit their particular personalities. The police manager: Professional leadership skills. Mr Spock has intuition, but the emotional side has always eluded his more rational, logical, and analytical-mind character. With that said, there are some types of businesses which require this form of management structure in order to be successfully. Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate unsatisfied higher needs and must be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy.
For example, a company with low-skill workers who are uneducated may need to use Theory X methods in order to keep their team moving forward. The past 40 years have seen considerable strides in our understanding of leadership, which until recently focused on inherited traits and abilities. Theory X: This refers to an authoritarian management style, where reward and punishment is seen as the best way to motivate employees to meet objectives. Success depends on a number of variables including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation. Many organisations are now taking the enlightened view of theory Y. Today's leaders must be partners with their people they can no longer lead based solely on position power.
McGregor believes both ends of the spectrum are too extreme for efficient real-world application. Thus, it does not encourage innovation and encourages an authoritarian style of management. The goal of this research was to identify consistencies in the behavior of motivated, satisfied, committed, and loyal employees in the construction field since these are important characteristics in the workplace. A need higher in the hierarchy will become a motive of behaviour as long as the needs below it have been satisfied. Ego equates with the personality. In practice, Theory Y managers tend to be participative when making decisions and value both Results and Relationships.
For a more detailed description of this survey, see John J. If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our Free Newsletter for the latest posts on Management models and methods. McCoy is an interesting ironic character, since despite his medical science training, he has a big heart. McGregor's model suggests that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Maslow's theory remains a classic because rather than looking at psychology as strictly the study of the mentally ill, his theory was based upon mentally healthy people known as.