Some metaphors may be an aid to communication, others will simply contribute to confusion and obfuscation. Last revised February 20, 1997. Primary sources, numbingly copious in some areas, are scarce and fragmentary in others. That species of proof which is admissible on the loss of primary evidence, and which becomes, by that event, the best evidence. Both accounts do say that the city of Troy was burnt to the ground, but there is more historical evidence that pirates looting the city did the damage, not a lot of very annoyed Greeks hiding inside a wooden horse. Oral tradition consists of stories that are not written down but passed on verbally, usually from an eyewitness to succeeding generations.
Oftentimes, interpretations follow the pattern of Hegelian dialectic, in which a thesis is countered by an antithesis before being resolved in a synthesis. For example: a newspaper account of an event that occurred last week is not usually considered a primary source. It is only one side of the story and it may not be the most accurate one. In case of a within the meaning of Article 85, the only kind of secondary evidence that can be given under Article 76 f is by a certified copy of that document and no other kind of secondary evidence. I looked through many primary sources, but my interpretation was very different from those of other historians who had studied the same issue. A secondary source is one that gives information about a primary source.
But, with rare exceptions, such art works will, at best, be no more than illustrations; at worst they may have little real relevance to what is being said in the article or book. As propoganda for a particular organization or ruler? If the event occurred during the American Civil War of 1861-65, e. Direct questions or comments to. In the recent study of history greater emphasis has been given to comparative history and to cultural history: but one of the greatest strengths of history today is that nothing is ruled out. Biographical dictionaries are compilations of biographies of people selected because of their fame, accomplishments, membership in a particular group, or some other distinguishing characteristic. Any leftover of the past can be considered a source.
Strategy and Structure I have already mentioned the need for identifying a research strategy, using the secondary sources to identify the topics to be addressed and the archives to be used. Frequently, they also take advantage of the work of other historians by using other secondary sources. As you are reading through sources for your history papers, ask yourself, where does this information come from? Books and magazines are common examples of secondary sources. It presupposes that the original document is not inadmissible in evidence. Primary sources can be wide-ranging. Wow, that's a loaded question. Generally, a primary source is one that was created at or extremely near the time of the historical events it describes.
Primary and Secondary Sources The only way we can have knowledge of the past is through studying the relics and traces left by past societies, the primary sources. Historians trying to prove the existence of Troy can compare a number of sources to make sure that they have enough evidence. After hearing arguments by the parties, the court decides whether to admit secondary evidence after determining whether the evidence is in fact authentic or whether it would be unfair to admit the duplicate. The secondary evidence under cl. Sources are the raw material of history - they are what history is made of.
The most accurate for any given source is not always obvious. Finally, the two opposing views are reconciled by a synthesis, or a merging, which creates a brand new idea or thesis. Story 2 The remains of nine cities have been found on the supposed site of the ancient city of Troy. Historical methodology is the process by which historians gather evidence and formulate ideas about the past. Journals, documents, contemporary records such as newspapers, receipts, and even material evidence such as clothing or dishes all exist as facts, or Primary Source Evidence. Historians, on the other hand, should convey their findings as clearly and explicitly as possible.
Historians and archaeologists believe that the seventh of the nine cities was the one referred to in Greek and Roman legends. That night the hidden soldiers crept out and opened the gates for the other Greeks to come in. Again, these are just general rules that often become more flexible as one discusses events of greater antiquity. Secondary sources involve generalization, analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information. Secondary Evidence A reproduction of, or substitute for, an original document or item of proof that is offered to establish a particular issue in a legal action.
In their own studies this process is taken as a given, and they test the history of historians against this given. To make secondary evidence admissible, it is necessary that loss of original document should be proved and permission to adduce secondary evidence obtained from the Court. Refer Image2 If someone lives through a period of history, but only records their memories of it years later, their account a memoir is not a secondary source. For my graduate thesis in history, I examined gender roles in the 1940s and 1950s. Actually, it is the writer, creator, or creators of the document or source who is, or are, intentional or unintentional, not the testimony itself, so these phrases are examples of a figure of speech, the transferred epithet, where the adjective, which strictly speaking should be applied to a person, is transferred to what the person produced - the phrase is all the more effective for that.