Classification of Definitions of Underdeveloped Countries: The aforesaid definitions of underdevelopment can be broadly classified into— i Poverty and low income based, ii Under-utilised resource based and iii capital deficiency based. The most well known examples of developed economies are United States of America, Canada, France, Norway etc. According to Planning Commission estimates, India's but poverty rate was 54. Low level of living Since about three-fourth of world population lives in underdeveloped countries which have less than one-fifth share in world income, it is obvious that a vast majority of people in these countries must be living under conditions of poverty, malnutrition, disease, squalor, illiteracy, etc. The problem of mass poverty is a corollary to income inequalities.
Agricultural productivity is low not only because of the large number of people in relation to available land but also because in Lower Development Countries agriculture is often characterised by primitive technologies, poor organisation and limited physical and human capital inputs. There is also a shortage of entrepreneur. Systematic utilisation of natural resources alone can lead to -economic development. The path of economic development in these countries is being obstructed by various socio-economic factors like-joint family system, universal marriage, costly social customs and the law of inheritance. Todaro classifies these common characteristics into six broad categories: Indian economy possesses all the characteristics common to underdeveloped or developing countries. This implies that nearly 51 per cent of the bottom households owned just 10 per cent of total assets. In India bottom 40% of rural population possess only 5% of rural assets while 8% top households possess 46% of total rural assets.
The birth rate and the death rate of such countries is less. This rapid growth of population stands as an obstacle in the smooth development of the economy. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. This problem of poverty arises not due to any temporary economic maladjustment but arises mainly due to existence of orthodox methods of production and social institutions. Limited Home Market :- In the less developed countries like Pakistan, the purchasing power of the people is low. In the absence of efficient and sound administrative set up, these countries are suffering from lack of proper economic organisation, lack of investments and lack of appropriate decisions leading to total mismanagement of these economies. Population Pressure :- In the under developed countries the size of population is greater than the size of natural resources.
Underdevelopment is a term often used to refer to economic underdevelopment , symptoms of which include lack of access to job opportunities, health care, drinkable water, food, education and housing. Underdeveloped का मतलब मीनिंग हिंदी में जाने. Illiteracy rate is also very high in India- 35% in 2001, as against less than 5 per cent in developed countries. The key differentiator between developed country and economy is that for economy we are mainly interested in whether it has the scope and possibility of developing given its circumstances at a point in time. The degree of poverty in these economies gradually increases due to increase in its size of population, growing inequality in income and increasing price level. What is more serious is that the number of unemployed is on the increase.
On account of the absence of technological development, India has continued to use old, outdated and primitive methods of production which were discarded by the developed countries long ago. Thus, economy becomes technologically backward and internationally in competitive. Growth and development do not merely depend upon capital accumulation. Unproductive Expenditure :- In the under developed countries a huge capital is used for unproductive purpose which increases the rate of inflation and affects the rate of economic development, adversely. In India rate of growth of population which was about 1. In brief, quality of life is extremely poor in less developed countries as compared to the developed nations.
In agricultural sector there is widespread disguised unemployment while in the urban areas there is open unemployment. Income inequalities result from the concentration of wealth and capital. Low Levels of Living In developing nations general levels of living tend to be low for the vast majority of people. Poverty :- In the less developed countries the standard of living is very poor. The Committee of Experts on unemployment pointed out that 30 million persons were unemployment in India in 1981. Colonialism and Slavery Africa is unique in that, between the fifteenth and twentieth centuries, a great number of its native inhabitants were enslaved and shipped to other countries and almost the entire continent was colonized by outsiders. Nomadic people have a difficult time sending their children to school consistently for several reasons: they relocate frequently to find grazing and water for their livestock and to find more available fish; children are an essential source of labor, which makes adults reluctant to send them to school; the rigid time schedules of traditional schools do not account for the nomadic lifestyle; nomads often live in inaccessible areas where terrain is difficult to navigate; and, in Nigeria, a land tenure system often prohibits nomadic people from acquiring permanent settlement land.
In underdeveloped economies like India, chronic unemployment is found which results from the structural defects in the economy. Especially noteworthy is the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The East African country of Sudan has been in a near-constant state of civil war since about 1955. The pace of industrialisation in these countries is very slow due to lack of capital formation, paucity in the supply of machinery and tools and also due to lack of initiative and enterprise on the part of people of these countries. It also signifies that the resource base of 50 per cent of the households is so week that it can hardly provide them anything above the subsistence level of income. Moreover, whatever industrial development that has been achieved by these countries are very much restricted only to some limited areas.
There are other causes as well, such as foreign ownership of the country's resources, bu … t education is the most important. Low rate of capital formation Another one of the basic characteristic of the Indian economy is the existence of capital deficiency. Most of these countries are extremely poor and do not have the resources to develop programs to educate and train citizens to farm or perform skilled work. Balance of Payments BoP : BoP is the systematic record of all economic transactions like trade of goods, trade of services, unilateral transfers, foreign investment, etc. Meaning of underdevelopment --Neha Gupta The term underdevelopment refers to that state of an economy where levels of living of masses are extremely low due to very low levels of per capita income resulting from low levels of productivity and high growth rates of population. To sum up India as ah underdeveloped economy is characterized by abundant, but unexploited natural resources, a high population growth rate, a slow rate of capital formation, an outdated technique of production, and a low standard of living, accompanied by continuous and sustained efforts to raise it through a proper utilisation of available natural, human, financial and entrepreneurial resources.