During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as by castrating them. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals. For Freud, childhood experiences shape our personalities and behavior as adults. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. Children can think of abstract concepts and have the ability to combine various ideas to create new ones. The genital stage appears when the sexual and aggressive drives have returned. He used the idea of moral dilemmas—stories that present conflicting ideas about two moral values—to teach 10 to 16 year-old boys about morality and values.
This is achieved through majority decision and inevitable compromise. Successful resolution of this stage will result in a well-balanced, warm and caring relationship. Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth orientated, such as sucking, biting, and breastfeeding. Those who do will develop self-confidence and feel a sense of purpose. If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. The theory states that these people may develop personality traits such as becoming extremely gullible or naive, always following others and never taking the lead, and becoming extremely dependent upon others.
As in the phallic stage, the genital stage is centered upon the genitalia, but the sexuality is consensual and adult, rather than solitary and infantile. Nevertheless, the boy remains ambivalent about his father's place in the family, which is manifested as by the physically greater father; the fear is an irrational, subconscious manifestation of the infantile Id. The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values that become the superego. Many Freud critics believe the memories and fantasies of childhood seduction Freud reported, were not real memories, but were constructs that Freud created and forced upon his patients. He developed his cognitive-developmental theory based on the idea that children actively construct knowledge as they explore and manipulate the world around them. Whether or not the child has successfully resolved the , the instinctual drives of the id are inaccessible to the Ego, because his or her repressed them during the phallic stage. These feelings naturally resolve once the child begins to identify with their same sex parent.
Oral Stage 0-1 year In the first stage of personality development, the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis 1856-1939 ; Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires and ego rationalizing conscious, what one can do and superego ingrained moral values, what one should do. The phallic stage follows the anal stage and is from 3 to 6 years. The boy focuses his libido sexual desire upon his mother, and focuses jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father — because it is he who sleeps with mother. The most important aspect of the phallic stage is the Oedipus complex. Erik Erikson proposed the psychosocial theory of development.
Churchill Livingstone:Edinburgh and London, p. This is a period where the libido or sexual drive lies dormant. The children of parents who do not meet their basic needs or are inattentive may form avoidant attachment. The Oedipus complex is central to the psychodynamic fixations in this time period for men; the Electra complex for women. The Oedipus complex, which is one of the most significant components of the phallic stage, can be explained as the need to have the utmost of a response from the parental figure that is the main object of the libido.
However, complete attachment has not yet occurred, so the baby is still comfortable being left with an unfamiliar person. Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescense. In 1969 Bowlby studied mother-infant interactions and concluded that infant smiling, babbling, crying, and cooing are built-in mechanisms to encourage parents to attach to, and thereby care for, the infant. This theory is probably the most well known as well as the most controversial, as Freud believed that we develop through stages based upon a particular erogenous zone. Stage 5: Social-Contract Orientation In stage 5, the world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights, and values. By 24 months, infants are able to imitate behaviors after a delay of up to three months. His theory of four stages of cognitive development, first presented in the mid-20th century, is one of the most famous and widely-accepted theories in child cognitive development to this day.
Fixating on a particular stage, determines the method of obtaining satisfaction that will dominate and affect his adult personality. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. Fixation at this stage may bring about sexual deviancy or weak sexual identity. By identifying with the same sex parent, the child continues with normal, healthy sexual development.
In this way, the individual acts because it is morally right to do so and not because he or she wants to avoid punishment , it is in their best interest, it is expected, it is legal, or it is previously agreed upon. The child may act in a rebellious manner and have lower self-esteem as they get older. These teens will have a weak sense of self and experience role confusion. The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child's future relationship with all forms of authority. According to Freud, young girls, after they come to the realization that they have no penis, begin to blame the mother for having taken it, and look to the father as a substitute for the loss that they perceive.