This two-person unit quite naturally becomes a family, and finally, in an act of aggression, bands of brothers join together to resist the tyranny of the father and the larger community is on its way. Human beings are divided into three parts: superego, ego and the Id in which each one is trying to rule against the individual. In abolishing private property we deprive the human love of aggression of one of its instruments, certainly a strong one, though certainly not the strongest; but we have in no way altered the differences in power and influence which are misused by aggressiveness, nor have we altered anything in its nature. Freud believes that one of the worst pieces of advice that society gives is to love all: Love your brother as you love yourself. Nevertheless, he is entitled to console himself with the thought that this development will come to an end precisely with the year 1930 A.
He worked at the Vienna General Hospital until 1885. As infants, we cry if we are hungry or in pain, and we enjoy the warmth and security of our mother's arms. Don't inquire into the source of your trouble. We then are evil or sinful. Civilization pays no attention to all this; it merely admonishes us that the harder it is to obey the precept the more meritorious it is to do so. In fact, this is the general capital formula. The commandment is impossible to fulfil; such an enormous inflation of love can only lower its value, not get rid of the difficulty.
By contrast, it is a feature of happy people that they find many ordinary experiences and everyday involvements worthwhile and meaningful. We may expect gradually to carry through such alterations in our civilization as will better satisfy our needs and will escape our criticisms. Thus the community grows and each of us becomes deeply dependant upon it at many levels. Although the thought of this seems beautiful I would have to disagree. He is less interested in what we should do than what we do in fact do, though he framed the questions as to whether or not we should regard civilization as a benefit or harm. But I am able to recognize that the psychological premises on which the systems based are an untenable illusion.
Here we treat the symptoms our displeasure itself , not the causes the reasons for our displeasure. We are threatened with suffering from three directions: from our own body, which is doomed to decay and dissolution and which cannot even do without pain and anxiety as warning signals; from the external world, which may rage against us with overwhelming and merciless forces of destruction; and finally from our relations to other men. Happiness, in the reduced sense in which we recognize it as possible, is a problem of the economics of the individual's libido. We can survive if we are not always experiencing pleasure, but for some individuals, sterility is devastating, and for others, the loss of love can lead to suicide. I believe that humans go through undulating stages of happiness and discontentment.
Making a comparison and contrast between two great writers in history, Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx in where their passages are interpreted and discussed because of their persuasion among them and its possible contradictions. Russell urges this acceptance at work, in relationships and with ourselves. But this threat alters nothing. Freud's exploration in the aforementioned regions was a portion of the most critical speculations improved in brain research. Re-Articulation of the Pleasure Principle A. The conflict with civilization transforms our psyche into a masochistic mechanism bent on punishment and disciplining of the ego.
This experience generated a new sense of pessimism about the human being and human nature. We do this, of course, by our practices of healing. To these gods he attributed everything that seemed unattainable to his wishes, or that was forbidden to him. We tend to regard it as a kind of gratuitous addition, although it cannot be any less fatefully inevitable than the suffering which comes from elsewhere. Freud identifies three key historical events that produced this disillusionment with human civilization: 1 the victory of Christendom over pagan religions Freud notes the low value placed on earthly life in Christian doctrine ; 2 the discovery and conquest of primitive tribes and peoples, who appeared to Europeans to be living more happily in a state of nature; 3 scientific identification of the mechanism of neuroses, which are caused by the frustrating demands put on the individual by modern society.
And being someone who is loved, and has a job that I love, I am happy. Civilization has to use its utmost efforts in order to set limits to man's aggressive instincts and to hold the manifestations of hem in check by psychical reaction-formations. In this sense, man feels protected and more secure and thus gets some form of happiness and contentment. This is done by a process of sublimation, or convincing ourselves that our desires are other than they are: Instead of wanting to be loved, we come to believe we want to love. One gains the most if one can sufficiently heighten the yield of pleasure from the sources of psychical and intellectual work.
Without meaning, people fill the void with hedonistic pleasures, power, materialism, hatred, boredom, or neurotic obsessions and compulsions. At the same time, it would be unfair to reproach civilization with trying to eliminate strife and competition from human activity. In order to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures. As a result, their neighbor is for them not only a potential helper or sexual object, but also someone who tempts them to satisfy their aggressiveness on him, to exploit his capacity for work without compensation, to use him sexually without his consent, to seize his possessions, to humiliate him, to cause him pain, to torture and to kill him. Civilization is a relationship among individuals in which individuals give up certain aspects of their own ego interests to join with other people in creating social institutions which address the first two dangers, and to some extent the third as well.
The ordinary man cannot imagine this Providence in any other from but that of a greatly exalted father, for only such a one could understand the needs of the sons of men, or be softened by their prayers and placated by the signs of their remorse. A major source of meaning is through the value of all that we create, achieve and accomplish. It is subject to restrictions of a different kind but perhaps of greater severity than those attaching to modern civilized man. He transfers the intra-psychic conflict between ego and id; pleasure principle and reality principle; unconscious and conscious mind; etc. Secondly, the need for happiness is important, but not vital. Can this guidance really come from outside you, or is it only possible through insight gained from experience? The first realm has as goal itself which means that the man want to achieve its freedom, and the second has as goal the means to survive which mean that man need to survive but there are some means to achieve that realm. This is how the circulation that Marx talks about C-M-C is completed.