It may require negotiation of one agent with another. It deals with man and his institutions. This aspect of political science can be overlooked only at the detriment of the importance of subject. They agree to the opinion of Holtzendorff. Apart from these Greek philosophers some modern thinkers also have contributed to the fund of normative thought. They did not concern themselves with the performance of institutions, their interaction and political behavior of man.
So his advice to the prince ultimately came to be a part of politics and as an art of government. But outside the academic institutes and universities many interest groups, journalists and other persons conduct investigations about political affairs and governmental matters. It chalks out the plans and programmes of agriculture and industry and controls the prices. History not only explains institutions but it helps us to make certain deduction for future guidance. Owing to certain reasons it has been more successful in some countries while it is less successful in others.
In an analysis of politics an important question is raised—Who gets, What, When and How? The term, Political Philosophy does not cover the range of Applied Politics. Guided by reason individuals do not want to continue the disagreement and they start to find out ways of settlement. But it is an important duty of the authority to provide goods and services to all of them and without the authoritative allocation of values that objective cannot be achieved. In place of the legal institutional study hitherto followed, the emphasis in empirical approach now was on political behavior. The need for laws, procedures and authority was felt universally and they were created and applied with some degree of success, consistencies were observed, alternatives were thought and theories emerged. But, the business had been limited to the international trade until the recent past.
It may be used judiciously and rationally. Hence the thinkers of this age move closer to ethics and try to advice the rulers. Study of state and government it deals with the nature and formation of the State and tries to understand various forms and functions of the government. Human nature is not static but dynamic. It was said that only legitimate power would become the basis for the acceptance of the government. Brain and stomach, hands and feet, eyes and ears, teeth and hair, bones, nerves, arteries and veins, still less the cells of which all these parts are composed, do not feed themselves. Aims at preparing the learner for wholesome social living.
Both political science and economics are involved in investigative analyses and studies of problems with which the state and society are confronted. There are many people in the world today who believe that man is not necessarily a political animal and he is also selfish but man prefers to live in the state because it is more advantageous for him to live there than outside it where lawlessness prevails. The large scale application of scientific methods and sophisticated tools has brought about sea change in the study of the subject. Since its emergence as a scientific study, Political Science has been growing in its scope. They laid stress on the ethical aspects of Politics. It insists on 'value free' approach.
In such a society, people are endowed with reason and because of that quality there arises disagreement and there are also procedures for the resolution of this conflict or disagreement. It covers a wide range and includes the study of political parties, public opinion, pressure groups, lobbies, etc. Regularities- there are certain uniformity in political behavior which can be generalized in terms of theories explaining and predicting political phenomena 2. Competition is the chief hallmark of market. A scientific study of the working of these political dynamics helps us to explain the political behavior of individuals and groups.
The material with which Political Science deals is totally different from the material with which other natural and physical sciences deal. Likewise, in a society some people have more income and some have less. Thus, this new experiment which introduced a secular state in India proved a success. This method has been very recently been employed by a number of writer who have attempted to explain political phenomena through psychological laws; Adopting this method, apolitical investigation attempts to study and analyse political activity through the laws of psychology. The authority of the state adopts various schemes to utilise geography for the development of human resources. Such evolutions and variations, past and present, in the ideasand practices behind the organisation and administration of humansocieties are the proper subjects of Political Science. Political philosophers generally prescribed what ought to be followed.
While the former deals with the study of Politics, the latter refers to the problems of man and woman which interact with political power and conflict with each other. The study of sociology aims at analyzing the patterns of human behavior, deriving their causes and speculating the future of the behavioral patterns in society. Whenever any learned person began to think about politics he did it in the background of philosophy. Quantification- imprecise qualitative judgments have no place in political science. Governments also regulate remittance of the profit of international business houses to other countries.
It has many definitions but what I term best fit is a government for the people and by the people. Rights are claims by an individual on the state. Therefore, it can safely be said that it is not necessary that the same conditions and circumstances will bring in the same results indifferent countries at the same time or at different times. Though the study of politics existed in some form since the time of Aristotle, the discipline was indistinguishable from moral philosophy and the study of society in general until early 19 th century. Historical approach- The feature of this approach is to throw focus on the past or on a selected period of time as well as on a sequence of events to explain the origin and growth of any political institution. The experiences and phenomena of history must be illuminated with the light of ideas.