A precocious schoolchild, Marx studied law in Bonn and Berlin, and then wrote a PhD thesis in Philosophy, comparing the views of Democritus and Epicurus. In the feudal society, the ruler did not have to use only rationality in his decisions. Its alien character is clearly shown by the fact that as soon as there is no physical or other compulsion it is avoided like the plague. He investigated sociological matters scientifically and with this, developed his theory. Marx's views of religion also differ to Durkheim's in subject of viewing religion as an illusion. Durkheim would rely on science, social facts and sociological investigation to study, understand and explain social phenomenon. According to Marx the development of capitalism was a gradual process.
Karl Marx, on the other hand, also sees the problematic of division of labor. As Durkheim marked, every individual is now unable to work by himself, without being a part of the society. Site Copyright: Jeanne Curran and Susan R. Although there were many contributors to the foundation of sociology, there were three men whose observations left the greatest impact. Types of Sociological Analysis There is no one correct way to look at society; to understand how society works, sociologists use a range of different approaches and techniques.
This is true not only for the Aborigines, he argues, but for all societies. Rationalization could lead to the disenchantment of the world devoid of religion, fantasy and magic. Employees are generally unable to make decisions on their own because they mostly have to follow the instructions of management. As Durkheim sees a new form of solidarity and Marx sees class conflict Weber analyzes a broader table of class distinction- class, status and power. He notes that all three are structuralists, but that each identifies a different force that structures economic activity and outcomes.
Thus, relations in the society and the way in which we transform nature are in a dialectical relationship. Even though the concepts which were offered by Marx and Durkheim are similar in some ways, they are certainly not identical. In this regard, we are worse off than pre-modern people, whose knowledge, while incorrect, at least provided them with prescriptions for living. In bureaucratic organizations decisions are made by the management and forwarded to the employees on lower level. By suggesting flexible norms, the society at the same time lets the negative factor in the minds of people.
It can be termed the collective or common consciousness. Before, we must know that the main point of the totality is analyzing the total itself rather than looking at its parts, thus society itself becomes the central point of the analysis. Of course, those girls who do not truly believe in God, will act the way they choose for themselves. Currently many people are concerned with the increase of number of premarital relationships which young girls have. Marx's key concept was class conflict, especially that between the capitalist and the working class. So they must receive it from an authority which they respect, to which they yield spontaneously.
All of the decisions made in companies are fully rational. By examining the effects of industrialization as well as drawing from the ideas of German theorists Hegel and Feuerbach, Marx developed his concept of dialectical historical materialism which a way of illustrating the change from one society to another Cuzzort and King, 1980. Inextinguishable thirst in constantly renewed torture. New York: The McGraw- Hill. Emile Durkheim also did his best to discuss why societies are often destined to fail.
Moreover, technology, with its ability to create more with greater efficiency, could eventually lead to depression. They are thus unlimited so far as they depend on the individual alone. On completion of his doctorate in 1841 Marx hoped for an academic job, but he had already fallen in with too radical a group of thinkers and there was no real prospect. Furthermore, arguments may be presented regarding the concept of civil religion and new world belief systems. Man who previously had no possessions started laying claim to land depending on his need and his means to cultivate.
Even if gambling is enjoyed by many members of the society in Hong Kong, many Christians would oppose to such games. For Marx, religion was a tool of those in the dominant class to make oppressed citizens feel better about their position in life. Still others suggest that functional alternatives to traditional religion, such as nationalism and patriotism, have emerged to promote social solidarity. By analyzing this seemingly individualistic act, Durkheim illustrates the position of society as a powerful entity in itself. Durkheim is an important person for sociology because of his effort to establish sociology as a discipline distinct from philosophy and psychology.
Structure Weber: Although he recognized certain aspects of structure, he believed that the social action was far too significant. In analyzing Marx, his belief that the move into capitalism was a necessary step in societal evolution is primary. According to Durkheim, there are two types of societies — the primitive and the modern society, both having their roots in the division of labor. With the purpose of setting an average measurement of the bureaucracy of an organization, he put these traits into action. In other words, numbers of members might still be growing, but this does not mean that all members are faithfully following the rules of pious behaviours expected.
Durkheim argues that two social facts, in particular, influence suicide rates: integration, or the strength of attachment people feel to society, and regulation, or the degree of external constraint on people. If different members of the society have different attitude towards moral issues, some members of the society can be alienated from others. Contrary… individuals as a whole are willing to cooperate. Social action is how we behave in everyday life. According to Weber, law does not reflect subjective interests of the capitalist class or objective characteristics of capitalist society. Both were German sociologists whose work spanned decades, and influence spanned even further.