They are: content integration, the knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, an equity pedagogy, and an empowering school culture and social structure Banks, 1995a. Readers can see Banks 1995a for more information about the other dimensions. This is, in part, because each individual belongs to several groups at the same time seeFigure 1. It means different… 1198 Words 5 Pages Effectiveness of a Multicultural and Bilingual Education 1 There is a lot of controversy concerning our public educational programs. The move towards recognizing the need for cultural diversity in learning was not only a problem in the U. Another important idea in multicultural education is that somestudents, because of these characteristics, have a better chance to learn in schools as they arecurrently structured than do students who belong to other groups or who have different culturalcharacteristics.
Feminists pushedfor the revision of textbooks to include more history about the important roles of women in thedevelopment of the nation and the world. . Theyshould also be competent to function within and across other microcultures in their society,within the national macroculture, and within the world community Banks, 2004. Today, these characteristics are no longer rare among the middle class, eventhough their frequency is still higher among lower-class families. Knowledge Construction and Transformation The Transformation Approach brings content about ethnic and cultural groups from the margin to the center of the curriculum. Each chapter now incorporates new theoretical, conceptual, and research developments within the field, providing an adaptable approach to classroom techniques. Ram´ırez and Casta˜neda 1974 found that Mexican American students who weresocialized within traditional cultures also considered personalized and humanized knowledgemore appealing than abstract knowledge.
It has negative consequences for the former because, according to Banks 1993 , it: reinforces their false sense of superiority, gives them a misleading conception of their relationship with other racial and ethnic groups, and denies them the opportunity to benefit from the knowledge, perspectives, and frames of reference that can be gained from studying and experiencing other cultures and groups p. Banks was a Spencer Fellow at the at during the 2005-2006 academic year. The Kids Guide to Social Action. When trying to identify the distinguishing characteristics of U. The percentage of students in each ethnic group labeled mentallyretarded should be about the same as the total percentage of that group in school.
The following stages of curriculum transformation have been adapted from several existing models including those by Banks 1993 and McIntosh 2000. New York Review of Books, 55 20 ,26—30. Stages of Multicultural Curriculum Transformation Just as there are several conceptualizations for multicultural education see , there are several perceptions as to what constitutes multicultural curriculum transformation. Although I am not an adult basic educator, multicultural education as it is studied, conceptualized, and practiced in K-12 and higher education is applicable to adult basic education as well. The contributions approach gains its popularity from the fact that it is the easiest approach to use. Groups such as Italians, Greeks, and Turks have migrated to Northern and Western Europeannations in large numbers.
The problemis complicated by the fact that societies are constantly in the throes of change. The strengths of this stage are that the teacher is attempting to diversify the curriculum by providing materials and knowledge outside the dominant culture and that the Heroes and Holidays approach is fairly easy to implement. His books include Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies; Cultural Diversity and Education: Foundations, Curriculum, and Teaching; Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society; and Race, Culture, and Education: The Selected Works of James A. It helps students to understand how knowledge is constructed and how it reflects the experiences, values, and perspectives of its creators. Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. Since schools are the point of contact where many children interact with the many diverse groups of society, teachers have a duty and a very special opportunity to help students develop positive interracial attitudes. Students learn to view events, concepts, and facts through various lenses.
Banks' theory of multicultural education. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, orauthorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. Stage 3: Integration At the Integration stage, teachers transcend heroes and holidays, adding substantial materials and knowledge about non-dominant groups to the curriculum. The curriculum of the mainstream has negative consequences for students from non-dominant groups, as well, failing to validate their identities, experiences, and perspectives. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, seventh edition, is designed to help currentand future educators acquire the concepts, paradigms, and explanations needed to becomeeffective practitioners in culturally, racially, and linguistically diverse classrooms and schools. Multicultural Education: Its Effects on Students' Racial and Gender Role Attitudes. He is an elected member of the and an inaugural Fellow of the American Educational Research Association.
In this approach, the organization and structure of the curriculum remains unchanged. Banks noted that at the time he came up with his five dimensions of multicultural education, it appeared that there was much working against the implementation of multicultural education presently. Bulletin boards might contain pictures of Martin Luther King, Jr. Much change is needed regarding racial and gender, as well as cultural, issues. The responses would range from adding new and diverse materials and perspectives to existing curricula to discussions of teaching styles and pedagogical approaches that meet the needs of traditionally underrepresented groups.
Neither of the first two levels of content integration attempts to examine and deconstruct structures in our society that maintain racial inequity. The percentage of the non-Hispanic White population in the United States is projected todecrease during the 2030s and 2040s and comprise 50 percent of the population in 2042,down from 66 percent in 2008 U. These observations, which reveal the less positive side of U. We would also like tothank Annette Henry and Cris Mayo for taking time from busy schedules to write and revisenew chapters for this edition. By contrast, she foundthat the values of men were more characterized by separation and individualism. The cultural program consists of knowledge, concepts, and values shared bygroup members through systems of communication. S needed to reexamine their efforts of educating diverse groups was emerging.
Banks holds the Kerry and Linda Killinger Endowed Chair in Diversity Studies and is the founding director of the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle. The irrelevant-of-content argument can become a legitimized form of resistance tomulticultural education when it is conceptualized primarily or exclusively as content. They also responded positively to knowledge that waspresented in a humanized or story format. The students can discuss what these concepts imply or suggestabout the Native American cultures that had existed in the Americas for about 40,000 yearsbefore the Europeans arrived. He is the editor of the Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education , the Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education , and the Multicultural Education Series of books published by Teachers College Press, Columbia University. It is easier to identify the core culture within an isolated premodern society, such as theMaoris before the Europeans came to New Zealand, than within highly pluralistic, modernizedsocieties such as the United States, Canada, and Australia Penetito, 2009.